The oldest evidence of human activity is of Stone Age. Peoples on the
Potohar plateau to the Northwest Punjab, the dravedians were late Stone Age
hunter gathered. Communities in the Punjab Sindh Excavation indicate
primitive agriculture in the up land valleys of Baluchistan by the late 4th
Millennium BC. In the 3rd Millennium BC. Permanent villages
forming were in sequence.
The Indus valley civilization flourished from 23rd to 18th
centuries BC. Its biggest and largest sites are Moenjodaro and Harapa. It
was literally agriculture society dominated by the Egyptians Named
Maspothanian. Who took the swing route of the Makran Coast.
A wave of Aryans rose up from Central Asia to South Asia in 18th
country BC, Spoken an early common ancestor of all Indo-European
languages, totally depended Agricultural from north to south. They have
had sheep’s to produce woolen cloths were called Ganthari which
gradually, converted to Gandhara.
The first European invader who seiged the Persians and took his way to the
North of Afghanistan into the North Frontier of Pakistan in 327 BC to
seiged. Taxishila the last Achemenied empire of Taxila. Embhi the Akhminid
empire gave him a great tribulation, and they both took over Punjab from
Porus the great 326 BC.
The Mouryan Empire Chandragupta Mouria rose up from east India, Sieged
Taxila and send his grand son Ashoka, who later become a famous King in
Taxila. His conversion to Buddhism in 262 BC. Was a great change for
Buddhism world, he trained Missionaries and send then to deferent part of
the world and in a short time Taxila become a secrete Place for the
After the decline of the Moryan, dynasty a wave a bactrain rose up from
North of Afghanistan, in the 2nd century BC. To Gandhra, After
the settlement, they built a new city, called sirkap and ruled up to 180
BC. They ruled over Gandhra and Indus valley civilization. A wave a of
Sakas or Sythians rose up from central Asia, Pushed out the bactarians and
settled down building new cities as well as Muhra Muradu in Taxila, Which
was abundant up to 3rd century AD. The Persian rulers Parthians
under the powerful King Ghandophereness, who found Gandhra is capital and
built a new city in the Mardan region at Takh-e-bahi, which is flourished
up to 3rd century AD.
Another tribe drive out from Central Asia were the Yueh Chih, or Kushans
by the 2nd century AD, they had forged an Empire under their
greatest kings, Kanishka, which spread from Uzbikistan to Buluchistan and
the Ganges, ruling it from Peshawar under the Kushans Buddhism experienced
and intellectual flooring found expression in an extra ordinary fusion of
Indian and Greek art spread over from Gandhara to Central Asia- China and
later to Tibet. In Kanishka, s trade and Buddhist art developed in the
ruling areas. The Kushans brand of rulers, ruled Gandhra up to 6th
The Kidar dynasty, which is called little Kushans, flourished –up to
Gandhra and the Gupta land were ruled in the 5th century AD.
By the hepthlelitises are white Huns. From Central Asia through the lasted
a few generations Gandhra have recovered. The Turkish Hindu Shahi dynasty
of Afghanistan above them from Gandhara, but the Chinese pilgrims Fah
Yuien on an Epic 15 years journey to India in the 5th century
found Buddhism still alive in Gandhra. A 7th century Monk
traveler Hsuan Tsang found it retreating on the mountains increasingly
Ritualostic and Maystic Form. The last Turkic Hindu Shahi dynasty over in
9th century took by the Barhamans and ruled up to 10th
In AD 712 an Arab invader under the young commander Hajag bin-Yousuf
sailed from Baghdad on the Makran Coast to the Indus region. At Deble near
Karachi. He took over Sind from a strong Hindu King Raja Daher and Islam
flourished in the region. The other Arab invader Muhammad Bin Qasim, who
marched up to the Indus valley to upper Punjab region. He came to Multan
in 11th century. Meanwhile the Gazanavd dynasty rosed up from
Central Asia in 1001 seiged the Peshawar valley, Swat and marched down to
Multan and its neighboring region to Dheli. And Islam became the
majorities’ religion in sub-continent.
In 1524 Zaheer -uddin Babar, the first Mogul Emperor the descendent of
Chanze Khan of Mangolia, ruled up from Central Asia to the Indian
Sub-content, he came from Afghanistan to Peshawar, built a fort, named
Bala Hisar Fort, that was his 1st fort in the region, he
marched down to the Indus river, following the Kabul river cross the Indus
at Attack region and built a Fort in Attack in 1581. After his death, his
Son Hamayoun became the Mogul emperor defeated by Afghan King, Sher Shah
Suri, Seiged the Sub-Continent, His total attraction was to built the Silk
Route in good condition for trade. He built Karvan Sarai, s, wells for
drinking water in every twenty miles. After a short time it was seiged by
the 3rd Mogul emperor Akbar in 1524. He start building Lahore
Fort in 1560, and walled city containing with 12 gates around the city,
and later his son Aurangzab Alamgir, who built the Shahi Mosque in Lahore
and Jahangir, s living rooms, and later his son Shah Jahan the great
builders, who built Shish Mahle Devan Khas, Devan Aram, Maktab Khana, Moti
Masjed, Lal Burg, Kala Burg, Ladies sleeping rooms, Turkish style of
Bathrooms, Hati Pare. The Mogul dynasty flourished up to 1560 and the
capital was Lahore, The birthplace of Aurangzab and Shah Jahan.
After the decline of the Mogul dynasty Renjet Sing, the founder of the
Sikh dynasty was the Governor of the Shah Jahan in India. Who found his
capital in Lahore and seiged the Sub-Continent murged, the North West
Frontier region in his dynasty.
founded in the 15th Century as a new religion attempted to Shed
the Dogma and Synthesize, the basic of the major religion in this, it was
influence by Sufiism of Islam. A mystical arm. It prospered under Akbar,
but grew increasingly militarized under persecution under Aurangzab. In 17th
century the last Sikh Guru. Gobind Singh found the Kalasa Orthodox
brotherhood of Holiworiers, this philosophy was introduce in the Sikh
region, which still existing in the Sikh community.
of the Sikh community was in 1841 and later the war started between
British Gresion. And Sikh Army.
In 1600 Queen
Elizabeth announced a business package to British traders to find market
in Asia for cotton, Rice, Spices and the 1st place the found in
India as east India company, which became, they final residence of the
British empire, who rolled the sub-continent properly from 1889 till
Pakistan existed as independent country on Aug 14-1947 from British India.
According to 1996 Senses Pakistan reachead140 Million.
The land of Pakistan covers an Area of 800,000 Square Km.
A quarter of the country has less than 120 millimeters, and three quarters
less than 250 millimeters of annual rains. The monsoon reaches mostly in
the narrow belt of Punjab at times up to the lower mountain slopes of
north, causing rainfall to about 500 millimeters per year with heavy
summer storms from July to September.
June and July are the hottest with mid-day temperatures in the 30c. in
towns and between 10-25c, in the mountains.
December, January, and February are the coldest months with daytime
temperatures ranging between 10-25c. In the plains and between 5-20c, in
the northern areas. It is naturally cooler at higher altitudes in summers,
and very cold in the winter months.
Strategically Pakistan is situated at an important point of Central Asia
and South Asia, bordered with India in the east, in the south with Arabian
Sea, in the west with Iran, and with North west with Afghanistan to
extreme North with China, and Tajkistan.
Map of Pakistan
Pakistan has four provinces.
The Name Sind derived from Sindu-the (River Indus) situated at the North
of Arabian sea, its capital at Karachi highly populated by 11 Million
inhabitants, Sind is famous for its history, Thatta, Makli, Moenjodaro,
and many shrines from Kalorah Dynasty, Sind is famous for Ajrak, with
local block print and pottery –Place of Sufi Shrines Bhit Shah, and
Shahbaz Qalander at Sehwan Sharif, The Largest Lake Mancher, for Boating
Punj-Aab – Five Rivers, the name Punjab means the place of Five Rivers,
they are Jehlum, Ravi Saltuj-Chanab and Indus. It was once one of the
important place for the Moghuls, it’s a birthplace of the Mogul Kings
Aurangzeb Alamgir and Shah Jahan. The famous Grand Trunk Road, the ancient
Silk Route used for traders from Central Asia to South Asia. Punjab is
totally agricultural province that’s the reason the industry mostly
developed, in Punjab very quick.
Punjab is highly populated
province in Pakistan, its is capital Lahore. Most of the Shrines of
and Buddhist. Sultan of Delhi is in Punjab. The famous Harapa, from 23rd
B.C. Mogul heritage, the Shrines of the Afghan Kings, and the famous
Grand trunk Road, it is a place of Artisans and a place of Sufi Shrines
built with beautiful tiles in 11th century to 16th
Lahore the capital of Punjab province inhabited 8 million, Lahore is one
of the great cities of the sub continent ranking with Delhi or Agra in the
range of superb Muslim Architecture, its Pakistan’s culture and
intellectual center. The faded elegance busy streets and bazaar, wide
variety of Islamic and British Architecture make this a city of
atmosphere, surprise and can trust, as Peshawar looks North to Central
Asia. So Lahore looks south to the great civilization of the Moguls
Lahore has been the capital
of Punjab for nearly more then 1000 years. From 1021 to 1186. It was
governed by Mohammed of Ghaznavi under the Ghaznavid dynasty-then ruled by
Muhammad of Ghor and finally by many sultans of Delhi.
Lahore reached its full
glory under Moghul rule (1524-1752) the third Moghul Emperors Akbar held his
court in Lahore from 1584-1598 during which time he built Lahore fort and
Old City with 12 gates. Jahangir and his successor Shah Jahan added to the
fort palaces and tombs, and Laidout Gardens the last of the great Moghuls
Emperors Aaranzab erected Lahore most famous monuments, The great Shahi
Mosque in 1674 to 1707.
In the 18th and
19th centuries the Sikh also had their Capital at Lahore. It is
said that they took many Marbles from the Mogul Mamuments to build golden
temple at Amratsar twice over.
Lahore is center place of
the surrounded towns and villages, which they have the great cultural
heritage from the past, with famous Artisan of Mogul arts and Artisans, it
is easily accessible by Road and by Air from all over the world in
Pakistan’s other places. Its old and new cities attract you more.
Multan is an ancient Saints city of Pakistan.
Multan is the most important city in the lower Punjab after Lahore.
Strategically placed at the cross roads of the main trade route, through
Pakistan’s and at what was once the confluence of the Ravi, Chanab
Rivers. Today Ravi joins the cherab 40 KM to the North of Multan has been
rich and well-defended city for more then 2000 year. Multan is reached by
Road and by Air every hour. Multan was invaders by many huaders and
features continuously are the history of Subcontinent the Mouryans Kushans.
Bactarians sythians and Parthians Alexander the great. Who wounded in
Multan fort in 324 BC. Moguls Ghoried, Tamarinds, Sultan Delhis Sikh
According to the Chinese
Pilgrimage Xuanzang who visited Multan in 640 AD. Described about the city
in detail, he found Multan agreeable prosperous and wrote at length. About
a fabulous statue of the sun god coast in gold, and ornamented with rare
gems. This statue is mentioned frequently in the history books and was
responsible for Multan becoming a prosperous center of Pilgrimage.
The Muslim invaders broke
up the statue, in the 10th Century, it was repaired again 900
years after, and it was destroyed by the Moghul King Aurangzeb.
In AD. 712, the Muslim
invader Muhammad Bin Qasim was the 1st Muslim invader of Sind. Muhammad
over threw King Dahir had him executed and sent the Kings two daughters to
clip of Baghdad, the Caliph was furious about this action and called him
back to Baghdad Multan then felt to Muhammad of Ghaznavi and become the
center of Islamic Scholar’s, Artisans, as well as Uch Sharif 13th
Century was the glorious time for the Muslim Scholars. The famous shrines
which was built in1284 by the Toghluqe King was the shrines of Rukn-e-Alam.
Which got for its renovation the Aga Khan Awards for Muslim architecture.
The largest province by landscape and smallest by population, Baluchistan
is Barents. And small villages can be seen from long distances. Quetta its
capital city situated to the west of Punjab and Sind NWFP bordered with
Iran, Afghanistan and the Arabian coast of Makran. The Majority of the
inhabitants are nomads, the sardari system still existing in this part of
Pakistan it is famous for fruit orchard grapes. Apples –Almonds.
Evidence from Mehrgarh the oldest known archeological site on the
Subcontinent elsewhere indicates that Baluchistan was inhabited as early
as the stone age and was part of an orient line of communication between
the Indus valley and Persia, and there to Mospotanian cultural that
created at Mehrgarh feuded way around 3000 B.C at about the time the Indus
valley civilization emerged. The Persian king cyrus the great conquered in
hospitable coasted belt known as the Makran in the 6th century
B.C and the Akhmenids want to rule over on Baluchistan, in 330 BC. Dharous
the great were defeated by Alexander the great. After Alexander the power
took over by Seleveeid Empire until the 3rd century BC. Then
the boctrian Greeks, Parthian, Sythian, Kushans, Hindu Brahmans later by
Changes Khan Tamur Lane Moghuls–Sikh and British, Arabians 711 AD.
The North west frontier province situated on the ancient silk route of
central Asia, this province is Known the gate of Central Asia most of the
inhabitants are pushtu speaking. It is a home of worriers according to the
British writers. It’s famous for its forests and wild life.
The Peshawar Plain the broad Kabul River from Khybar Pass to the Indus was
called Gandhara. Hindu tribes were living there in the 2nd
Millennium B.C. Ruled by Aryans, the cattle harded people spread over the
plain of Peshawar and the Surrounding Mountains in 6th century
B.C. The Achemieds formed a new satrapy in Gandhara Taxila under cyrus the
great of Persia in 327 BC. Alexander the great sieged Ghandahara defeated
the last king Persian Ambhi and trek down to the South sieged porous the
great. In 324 BC. In 262 B.C. The Mouryan dynasty rosed up from east India
captured Grandhara, and his grand son Ashoka became a powerful Buddhist
king in Ghandahara.
Bactarians, in 2nd
century B.C. The Bactrarian Greeks took over Gandhara, ruled upto 2nd
Century AD. The decline of Bactarians the Sythiems and parthians came in
power and built new cities one by one. Kushans came in Grandhara for a
long time up to 6th Century AD. Then the hordes of Central
Asia, Huns invaded Grandhara, After the Huns the Turish Hindu Turkish
Shahis ruled Gandhara for a short time. Muslim, British Sikhs, Moguls from
16th Century to 19th centuries
name of Pushapura means the city of flowers. It’s a capital of the
Northwest Frontier province. In inhabitants with 6,56 millions Peshawar is
called the border city which is closed to the Afghan border to the famous
Khyber Pass. Peshawar is one of the most oriental city in Pakistan. The
Moguls remain Bala Hisar Fort, the story tailor bazaar, and Muhabat Khan
Mosque is one of the unforgettable remains in this city. The sculptures of
Grandhara which is displayed in Peshawar museum is something extra
ordinary collection for Buddhist world and archaeology loving people of
the world. The most attractive Buddhist monastery 75, Km from Peshawar
gives you the detail history of the Buddhist era. That is the city of
Chitral lies in the foot of Trich Mir the highest of Hindu Kush Mountain
bordered with Afghanistan. The inhabitants are speaking Khowar and Urdu,
surrounded. Valleys high mountains of 6500m to 7700m surround Chitral. The
Kalash valleys are one of the impressive valleys in Chitral District.
Chitral town is surprisingly large, its population having swelled by
Afghan refugees from across the border. Visit Chitral fort and 100 years
old Shahi mosque surrounded by clusters of enormous chinars trees. The
impressive fort is the ancestral home of the mehtars of Chitral (The ex
The Chitral Kafirs are called Kafir Kalash (Black Infidels) because of
their women black robes. The women wear red and white beads necklaces and
superb black headdresses which flow down their back, and are covered with
shells and buttons usually crowned with a large red pompoms. They almost
use the Kamez Shalwar by the men and woolen heat. Women play flute and
drums normally they dance, but on festivals. They dance allot, that
festival starts in mid may spring festival, August, harvesting festiveal
and September volnut festival, in these festivals they have big gatherings
eating and dancing together.
Chitral prime attraction is the Kalash valleys, home of 3000 non-Muslim
Kafir Kalash (or black infidels) who live in 20 small villages in the
valleys of Birir, Bumboret and
Rumbur. The Kafir
Kalash still follow their own religion, a mixture of animism and
ancestor-and fire-worship, and have retained some of their original
culture. They make offerings to several gods: sajigor, the highest deity,
is in charge of everything: Surisan protects the cattle, Goshedoi milk
products, and Praba fruit. Most of the Kalash are pale skinned, and some
of them even have fair hair and blue eyes, all of which give rise to the
usual legend that they are descended from the followers of Alexander the
and other interest tours.
As results of invaders in the past Pakistan have many Ethnic groups-but
the main are Sandhi-Punjabi-Baluchi- Pushtu, Urdu is the National
Language, Official language is English.
Pakistan has the opportunity of rivers that feeds the agriculture that’s
the reason 75% of the population depends on agriculture. Producing best
crops of cotton, Rice Maize, Wheat Barley lintels, Many kinds of Fruits
Pakistan is rich of Minerals, oil Gas, Bronz- Precious stone coal Gold,
Flara & Fona:
Pakistan has pine forests in Swat valley –Murree hills. Azad Kashmir,
and in the North of Kohistan Baluchistan is mostly Barents, we have
vegetation in the wet lands of Himalaya and Hindu Kush, wild life
conservatism started in every areas to protect snow leopard, blue sheep.
Marcopolo Sheep Markhour, Ibex, and other rear birds from the desert to
the high mountains.